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V:YAG Crystal

V:YAG Crystal is a new material of laser saturable absorber and passive Q-switch in wavelength range of 1.06 – 1.44 μm. It is especially suitable for neodymium laser of 1.3 μm. V:YAG crystal can be used with active laser media such as Nd:YAG, Nd:YAP, Nd:KGW, Nd:YVO4 and provide good lasing characteristics in passive Q-switched lasers.

Key features

  • High ground state absorption
  • Insignificant excited state absorption
  • The high contrast of the Q-switch
  • Good optical, mechanical, and thermal properties
  • UV-resistant and features a high damage threshold

Surface Quality

10/5 S/D

Size

Upon customer request

Coating

AR/HR/PR

Quality Warranty Period

One year

Description

Parameters

  • Orientation: <100> <+/-0.5°
  • Initial absorption coefficient: 0.1~8.5 cm-1 @ 1064 nm
  • Initial transmission T0: 30%~98%@1340 nm
  • Initial transmission T0 tolerance: ±1% (for values larger than 80%)
  • Wavefront distortion: <λ/8@ 632.8 nm
  • Thickness/Diameter Tolerance: ±0.05 mm
  • Surface Flatness: <λ/8 @ 633 nm
  • Wavefront distortion: <λ/4@ 632.8 nm
  • Surface quality: 10-5 S-D
  • Parallelism: < 20 arcsec
  • Perpendicularity: 10 arcmin
  • Clear Aperture: > 90%
  • Chamfer: < 0.2 mm @ 45°
  • Coating: AR(R<0.2%)@1310-1360 nm
  • Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT): >10 J/cm2@1064 nm, 10 ns

Physical and Optical properties

  • Chemical Formula: V3+:Y3Al5O12
  • Crystal Structure: Cubic 
  • Emission bandwidth: 1000-1450 nm
  • Central absorption wavelength: 1300 nm
  • Absorption coefficient: 1.0 – 7.0 cm-1 
  • Mass Density: 4.56 g/cm3
  • Thermal expansion coefficient: 6.14 × 10-6 K-1
  • Thermal conductivity: 11.2 Wm-1K-1
  • Melting Point: 1970°C
  • Mohs Hardness : 8.2
  • Refractive index: 1.82@1064 nm

Spectral curve

V YAG Absorption coefficient curves
V YAG Absorption coefficient curves

Standard Product List

Code Size, mm T0@1064 nm Coating
V-YAG-001 3X3 T0=30%~95% AR(R<0.2%)@1310-1360 nm
V-YAG-010 Ø5 T0=30%~95% AR(R<0.2%)@1310-1360 nm

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Frequently asked questions

Laser crystals is the monocrystalline optical materials which are used as gain media for solid-state lasers. In most cases, they are doped with either trivalent rare earth ions or transition metal ions. 

Laser crystals are typically pumped with an external light source, such as a flashlamp or another laser, to excite the dopant ions and create a population inversion necessary for lasing action.

Laser crystals work based on the principles of stimulated emission of radiation. The process involves the interaction of light with atoms or ions within the crystal lattice, leading to the amplification of coherent light.

YAG laser optically pumped by Xenon or Krypton Lamp application
YAG laser optically pumped by Xenon or Krypton Lamp application

Nonlinear Crystals means the crystals materials that can generate nonlinear optical effect from laser beam or electricity, magnetic field and strain field. This nonlinear behavior is exploited in various optical applications, particularly in the generation of new frequencies of light through processes like second-harmonic generation (SHG), sum-frequency generation (SFG), and parametric down-conversion.

Nonlinear optics materials find applications in a variety of fields, thanks to their ability to generate new frequencies of light and manipulate optical signals.

  • Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG): Nonlinear crystals can be used to double the frequency of incoming light, generating a new wavelength that is twice the original.
  • Third-Harmonic Generation (THG): Similar to SHG, but involves tripling the frequency of the incoming light.
  • Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPO): Nonlinear materials are used in OPOs to generate tunable coherent light across a wide range of wavelengths.
  • Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA): Nonlinear materials are employed in OPAs to amplify weak signals without adding noise, enabling the amplification of specific wavelengths selectively.

Nonlinear optics refers to the phenomena that occur when the response of a material to an electromagnetic field is not proportional to the field’s intensity.

  • Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG):
    Effect: In SHG, two photons of the same frequency combine to generate a new photon with twice the frequency.
    Applications: Used for frequency doubling, converting infrared light to visible light. Common in green laser sources and in various imaging and spectroscopy techniques.
  • Third-Harmonic Generation (THG) and Higher Harmonics:
    Effect: Similar to SHG but involves the generation of photons at three times (or higher multiples of) the original frequency.
    Applications: Wavelength conversion and the generation of harmonics for various applications, such as in medical diagnostics and microscopy.
  • Four-Wave Mixing (FWM):
    Effect: Generation of new frequencies through the interaction of three or more input waves.
    Applications: Wavelength conversion, quantum information processing, and the creation of entangled photon pairs for quantum optics.
  • Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) and Oscillation (OPO):
    Effect: Amplification or generation of new frequencies based on the parametric interaction of photons.
    Applications: Tunable light sources for spectroscopy, imaging, and quantum optics.
  • Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM):
    Effect: Modulation of the phase of one beam by the intensity of another beam in a nonlinear medium.
    Applications: Used in optical communication for signal processing and wavelength conversion.
  • Self-Focusing and Self-Phase Modulation:
    Effect: The intensity-dependent change in the size and phase of a light beam as it propagates through a nonlinear medium.
    Applications: Relevant in laser beam control, pulse compression, and the formation of optical solitons.
  • Supercontinuum Generation:
    Effect: Broadening of the spectrum of a pulse in a nonlinear medium, leading to the creation of a supercontinuum.
    Applications: Used in sources for broadband light, particularly in optical coherence tomography (OCT), spectroscopy, and communications.

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