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Nd:YAG Crystal

Nd:YAG Crystal(Nd:Y3Al5O12) is the most widely used solid state laser crystal. Nd:YAG laser crystal are wildly used in all types of solid-state laser systems-frequency-doubled continuous wave, high-energy Q-switched, and so forth. Its good fluorescent lifetime thermal conductivity and physical strengths makes it suitable for high power lamp pumped laser.

Key features

  • Nd Concentration: 0.1- 2.5(+/-0.1)atm%
  • Length: 3 ~ 150mm
  • Surface Quality: 10/5 Scratch/Dig MIL-O-1380A
  • Parallelism: < 10″
  • Perpendicularity: < 5′
  • Clear Aperture: > 90%
  • Surface Flatness: < λ/10 @ 632.8 nm
  • Coating: AR/HR/PR coating upon customer’s request

Surface Quality

10/5 S/D

Size

Upon customer request

Coating

AR/HR/PR

Quality Warranty Period

One year

Description

Parameters

  • Doping(atm%): 0.1% ~ 2.5%
  • Orientation: [111], [100], [110] <±0.5°
  • Dimension Tolerances: ±0.05 mm
  • Surface Quality: 10/5 S/D
  • Parallelism: < 10″
  • Perpendicularity: < 5′
  • Clear Aperture: > 90%
  • Wavefront Distortion: λ/10 @ 632.8 nm
  • Surface Flatness: < λ/10 @ 632.8 nm
  • Chamfer: < 0.1 mm @ 45°
  • Coating: upon customer’s request
  • Damage Threshold: 750MW/CM2 at 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10Hz

Physical and chemical properties

  • Chemical Formula: Nd:Y3Al5O12
  • Crystal Structure: Cubic
  • Lattice Constant: 12.01Å
  • Density: 4.5g/cm3
  • Melting Point: 1970°C
  • Thermal Conductivity (W/m/k@25°C): 0.14 W
  • Specific Heat/(J/g/K): 0.59
  • Rupture Stress: 1.3-2.6*103 kg/cm2
  • Hardness (Mohs): 8.5
  • Young’s Modulus/GPa: 317
  • Shear Modulus/Gpa: 54.66
  • Extinction Ratio: 25 dB
  • Poisson Ratio: 0.25

Optical properties

  • Laser Transition: 4F3/2 →> 4I11/2
  • Photon Energy: 1.86×10-19J
  • Laser Transition Wavelength, λl: 1064 nm
  • Pump Transition Wavelength, λp: 808 nm
  • Pump Transition Bandwidth, Δλp: <4 nm
  • Laser Transition Bandwidth, Δλl: ~0.6 nm
  • Pump Transition Peak Cross Section, σp (E-20 cm2): 6.7
  • Laser Transition Peak Cross Section, σl (E-20 cm2): 28
  • Pump Transition Saturation Intensity, φp (kW/cm2): 12
  • Laser Transition Saturation Intensity, φl (kW/cm2): 2.6
  • Laser Transition Saturation Fluence, Γl,sat (J/cm2): 0.6
  • Minimum Pump Intensity, Imin (kW/cm2): ~0
  • Upper Laser Manifold Lifetime, τ(msec): 0.26
  • Quantum Defect Fraction: 0.24
  • Fractional Heat Generation: 0.37
  • Refractive Index: 1.8197 @1.064 µm
  • Fluorescence Lifetime: 230 µs

Spectral curve

Nd:YAG Crystal Absorption
Nd YAG Crystal Absorption and Emission

Standard Product List

Product CodeSize, mmDoping, atm.%Coating
Nd YAG 0801Ø3*600.8AR/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 0802Ø4*800.8AR/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 0803Ø5*900.8AR/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 0803Ø6*1100.8AR/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 0804Ø7*1250.8AR/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 0805Ø8*1300.8AR/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 0806Ø9*1500.8AR/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 0807Ø10*1600.8AR/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 11013*3*21.1HR@1064+HT@808/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 11023*3*31.1HR@1064+HT@808/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 11033*3*41.1HR@1064+HT@808/AR@1064 nm
Nd YAG 11043*3*51.1HR@1064+HT@808/AR@1064 nm

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Frequently asked questions

Laser crystals is the monocrystalline optical materials which are used as gain media for solid-state lasers. In most cases, they are doped with either trivalent rare earth ions or transition metal ions. 

Laser crystals are typically pumped with an external light source, such as a flashlamp or another laser, to excite the dopant ions and create a population inversion necessary for lasing action.

Laser crystals work based on the principles of stimulated emission of radiation. The process involves the interaction of light with atoms or ions within the crystal lattice, leading to the amplification of coherent light.

YAG laser optically pumped by Xenon or Krypton Lamp application
YAG laser optically pumped by Xenon or Krypton Lamp application

Nonlinear Crystals means the crystals materials that can generate nonlinear optical effect from laser beam or electricity, magnetic field and strain field. This nonlinear behavior is exploited in various optical applications, particularly in the generation of new frequencies of light through processes like second-harmonic generation (SHG), sum-frequency generation (SFG), and parametric down-conversion.

Nonlinear optics materials find applications in a variety of fields, thanks to their ability to generate new frequencies of light and manipulate optical signals.

  • Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG): Nonlinear crystals can be used to double the frequency of incoming light, generating a new wavelength that is twice the original.
  • Third-Harmonic Generation (THG): Similar to SHG, but involves tripling the frequency of the incoming light.
  • Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPO): Nonlinear materials are used in OPOs to generate tunable coherent light across a wide range of wavelengths.
  • Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA): Nonlinear materials are employed in OPAs to amplify weak signals without adding noise, enabling the amplification of specific wavelengths selectively.

Nonlinear optics refers to the phenomena that occur when the response of a material to an electromagnetic field is not proportional to the field’s intensity.

  • Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG):
    Effect: In SHG, two photons of the same frequency combine to generate a new photon with twice the frequency.
    Applications: Used for frequency doubling, converting infrared light to visible light. Common in green laser sources and in various imaging and spectroscopy techniques.
  • Third-Harmonic Generation (THG) and Higher Harmonics:
    Effect: Similar to SHG but involves the generation of photons at three times (or higher multiples of) the original frequency.
    Applications: Wavelength conversion and the generation of harmonics for various applications, such as in medical diagnostics and microscopy.
  • Four-Wave Mixing (FWM):
    Effect: Generation of new frequencies through the interaction of three or more input waves.
    Applications: Wavelength conversion, quantum information processing, and the creation of entangled photon pairs for quantum optics.
  • Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) and Oscillation (OPO):
    Effect: Amplification or generation of new frequencies based on the parametric interaction of photons.
    Applications: Tunable light sources for spectroscopy, imaging, and quantum optics.
  • Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM):
    Effect: Modulation of the phase of one beam by the intensity of another beam in a nonlinear medium.
    Applications: Used in optical communication for signal processing and wavelength conversion.
  • Self-Focusing and Self-Phase Modulation:
    Effect: The intensity-dependent change in the size and phase of a light beam as it propagates through a nonlinear medium.
    Applications: Relevant in laser beam control, pulse compression, and the formation of optical solitons.
  • Supercontinuum Generation:
    Effect: Broadening of the spectrum of a pulse in a nonlinear medium, leading to the creation of a supercontinuum.
    Applications: Used in sources for broadband light, particularly in optical coherence tomography (OCT), spectroscopy, and communications.

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